Astronomers have for the first time glanced for a black hole

Category: English  |   04 Июнь 2018    

Astronomers have for the first time glanced for a black hole

For the first time the international group of astrophysicists managed to consider a black hole in the center of the Milky Way by means of radio telescopes. More precisely, scientists have found shining "ring" around a black hole the Sagittarius And that has confirmed all earlier moving forward theories. About what scientific value of an experiment, we have had a talk with the Russian astronomer, the senior research associate of the State astronomical institute of Shternberg Vladimir Surdin.

Astronomers approached a black hole in the center of our Galaxy long ago. And here the objectives are achieved: the international Event Horizon Telescope project ("The telescope of the horizon of events") the Sagittarius And in the center of the Milky Way "has photographed" shining "ring" around a black hole.

- Black holes long time remained nearly only prediction of the General theory of relativity of Einstein which didn't manage to be checked directly, - Surdin says. - We suspect black holes of many objects, but to finally prove that this object and is a black hole, it is possible only having approached the devices her borders - to the horizon of events. What now for the first time has also occurred.

- And the experiment on detection of gravitational waves which have arisen at merge of two black holes unless wasn't the proof?

- It too strong proof, but indirect. This time scientists have directly seen borders of the Sagittarius And, having united seven land telescopes of millimetric range scattered on different continents in uniform network: in Hawaii, in Mexico, Chile, on the South Pole, in Greenland, France and Spain. To force to work well-coordinated together telescopes with very short wavelength it was extremely difficult, but nevertheless it is made. Our colleagues from abroad managed to approach a black hole "on distance of an outstretched arm" - only three times farther from the horizon of events.

- What specifically have they seen?

- They have seen how on a black hole surrounding gas falls. But because light beams strongly distort the way near a black hole, the look at this disk has appeared not absolutely disk. He has decently raised the rear edge thanks to what we see what occurs both before a black hole and behind it that in conditions habitual to us we would shouldn't see, that is a reverse side of a black hole.

- It is illusion?

- No, it is result of light refraction.

- What do you think of a talk that the black hole in the center of our Galaxy can appear at the same time and "the mole hole" through which it is possible to fly to the neighboring galaxies?

- It is very far theory, you shouldn't mix it with what is made in reality. This experiment — in itself a grandiose thing which cost to scientists of big works. And I can't but add that our scientists - the director of the FIAN Astrospace center, the academician of RAS Nikolay Kardashev and the deputy director of Special astrophysical observatory of RAS, the academician of RAS Yury Pariysky stood at the origins of this technology of a research. They the first have thought up an intercontinental interferometry. Just in other countries because of worthy science funding she has stepped forward, and remained with us at the rudimentary level.

- What will be the following step of scientists in studying of the Sagittarius And?

- If we are given money for creation of the Millimetron space telescope, we will join the international company with the best tool and we will approach a black hole so that it will be possible "to feel her barehanded". Our telescope will surpass all available millimetric telescopes because will depart far from Earth. The sizes of Earth limit an opportunity to move apart antennas, and in space it is possible to receive time in ten more exact pictures of our largest black hole.

Comment of the chief researcher of the Astrospace center of Physical institute of P.N. Lebedev Pavla Ivanova:

- There was an opportunity to directly observe vicinities of supermassive black holes by method of a so-called interferometry with superlong base when several remote tools (as a rule, radio telescopes) work as one big tool.

It allows to see sources of very small angular size what the black holes highlighted or the radiation of the substance falling on them, as a rule, forming diskopodobny structure (a so-called accretionary disk) are, or flowing from a black hole in the form of the stream named by Jett. The radiation passing rather close from a black hole is captured by her and therefore, her image represents an asymmetrical dark stain characteristic, as a rule, a so-called "shadow of a black hole". Search of such shadows - one of the most important problems of modern astrophysics.

Two projects - the international project, the called "Telescope of the Horizon of Events" and the domestic Millimetron project are aimed at him (the last didn't start yet).

Recently there was article of the authors submitting the command of "the Telescope of the Horizon of Events" in which results of the last processing of observations on the wavelength of 1,3 millimeters of the vicinity of a black hole in the center of our Galaxy, with a possessing mass of 4 million masses the Sun are discussed.

These results unambiguously reject model of a symmetric source with brightness maximum in his center which could be observed if a supermassive object in the center of our Galaxy wouldn't be a black hole.

On the other hand, these data don't contradict existence of a shadow and, to some extent, confirm her existence. Unfortunately, there are enough data on for more detailed conclusions so far, for them it is necessary or to wait until "the Telescope of the Horizon of Events" saves up more data, or to wait for start of the Millimetron project.



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